This is a series of articles and interviews about China’s animators, ACG platform executives and voice actors, in the hope of presenting the general spectrum of China’s animation business.
Pleasant Goat and Big Big Wolf
Born in Hong Kong, animation film director and producer William Kan directed three of the seven popular Pleasant Goat and Big Big Wolf franchise films. Based on the wide distribution of its TV series over the decade, this whole film franchise has raked in over 100 million USD at the local box office and is the start of China’s animated family movie. Kan is now writing a new story for a co-production project with a big British studio. Here are his opinions about the market.
The Chinese animation film has witnessed its first contemporary generation do different tests; the second gain improvement; and the third generation shall see the results of such improvement. Even if the market further opens up in 2017, it won’t pose devastating challenges towards the Chinese animation films, instead, local animation films will be able to travel beyond the borders. There are several reasons: Firstly, the capital in China is limitless and can be used to make big movies; secondly, with money, skills shall come along – even foreign talents will come to China, for example, those from the United States, Great Britain and France. In two or three years, the rich resources in China shall pay off. Producers and distributors would love to work with the Chinese companies.
Another signature is the market itself. Everybody knows China’s 2nd generation contemporary animation film has already come with the advent of Monkey King: Hero is Back – it is no more for kids only, but for adults as well. We should thank Pixar, Disney and DreamWorks, whose animation films like Frozen have stimulated the China market and brought some adults into the cinema. In a way, these films have expanded this market.
Still, the missing link of the China market right now is actually the audience, not the industry people. Everyone now has the awareness that creating different IPs means big business. They want a share in the big box office revenue and the even bigger merchandising pie.
The merchandising of the Pleasant Goat is now remarkable – there are all kinds of toys, T-shirts, school bags and even a coffee shop featuring the Goat in China, any kind of licensing you can imagine. Pleasant Goatis as popular in China as Doraemonin Japan. Everybody knows what it is. It is like the nation’s mascot.
The threats to the Chinese film market are: First, animation is a highly risky business: there might be only one good project out of 500 and rich investors who know little about the market might reasonably lose money if invest in the wrong project. e higher the risk, the fewer chances will be granted to the animators to try. Also, the production cost is always reduced, and the production time shortened, which poses essential challenges to make quality animations and in the long run, might ruin the market. Yet another threat is the animation style: right now, they are still in the development stage, and there is no distinctive China style, unlike half a century ago, the classic Monkey King style made by the Shanghai Animation Film Studio. They just copy the Hollywood style or Japanese style. But it is just a phase. Animators including me are testing very new and special styles, quite different from the American or Japanese styles.
In China, both cell animation and 3D animation are already well developed but still not for the Stop Motion. Some academy expertise in China claims that, except the 3D animation with high budget and high quality, stop motion will be the next trend in China. Audiences are tired to see the same style and form and they want to see something new. We need a very unique style to show to the audience.
Lu & Li: China’s New Animation Directors
One Hundred Thousand Bad Jokeswas released in December 2014 and scored $19 million at the box office. Based on a comic series published in 2009 that mingled ancient Chinese stories, Western fairy tales and adult humor. For the first time, a film proved China also has a big 2D animation market for adults. Here are insights from the young animation director couple Lu Hengyu and Li Shujie, who were both born in the 1980s.
On the whole, the Chinese animation market is getting bigger and better, but one successful animation film or two does not mean the entire industry has been elevated already. Nevertheless, this means we actually have tremendous space for improvement. To be specific, to find what kind of style suits China – story telling, art direction, dubbing, etc. and to maximize the grandeur of this style requires animators to keep exploring new territories and updating themselves.
The Chinese animation industry has the potential to let hundreds of flowers blossom. In 2015, one animation film box office wonder of after another emerged: from One Hundred Thousand Bad Jokes to Bonnie Bears, and then, this summer, Monkey King: Hero is Back became a milestone for local animations. Another good news is Rainbow Sea is about to release its second season. Besides Internet platforms like U17 and Tencent Comics, Hei Bai Wu Shuang created by Yu Yanshu has been adapted into animation; bilibili is also making adaptations from original comics. This enthusiastic market will attract more talents dive into this industry and grab opportunities.
What we could learn from the Japanese animation industry is the scientific segmentation of the production procedure.
Not just Japan. The American and European ways of working are both worth learning. But we should not just copy their ways, as our resources and markets are quite different. The ideal way is to find a way that is suitable to the Chinese cultural background through the learning process.
The Chinese animators need to ensure their fundamental skill set so that when an opportunity comes, they can grab one. We feel the same for ourselves – to enhance the basics is always relevant, because the production company wants it good, and wants it fast. Within one year, an animation film should be made, whereas in the west, they have three or four years to make an animation film. The past difficult experience is now a treasure to us, since we surely can work under pressure. Even though we only had one year – no problem – we made it and we felt great!
We have been working on our second animation for quite sometime now and we are about to announce the news. By the way, One Hundred Thousand Bad Jokes II has been under development for a while.
Li: I am crazy for Christophe Nolan, Disney, Pixar and some Japanese directors and studios. There are many movies that have huge impact on me. I remember I watched three director’s commentary on their productions, which were most inspiring: Lord of the Rings, Forrest Gump and A Bug’s Life. Lord of the Rings taught me craftsmanship and broadened my horizon; Forrest Gump showed me silly (diligent) ways and big wisdom; A Bug’s Life taught me tight plots, fun lines and lively performance. Whereas Nolan’s e Prestige made me feel I saw God. I can talk a whole night on this topic!
Lu: About my favorite directors? Well, how can you ask a fickle-minded cinephile this question! I just like so many directors. Let’s put it this way: any interesting film or director would inspire me.
Monkey King: Hero is Back
It is the first time that a Chinese animation film has earned this much at the box office: 150.67 million USD in 59 days. People were amazed by its craft and story telling, two things most local animation films were unable to guarantee. With this success, Chinese production companies shall be less reluctant accepting animation film scripts. More confidence can be built among investors, viewers and studio executives regarding local animation films.
Crowd-funding – One of innovative things Monkey King: Hero is Back did was crowd-funding. Producer Lu Wei used to be in the finance business and noticed the difficulty of raising a decent budget for an animation film. So he tried crowd funding within his friend circle and raised 5 million RMB within 5 hours. By the end of that week, he’d got 780 million RMB in this way – some would contribute 10,000; others, 100,000. Altogether, there were over a hundred contributors, who then became this film’s best advocators, marketers and box office boomers – they even rent over two hundred cinemas to invite their friends and family to see the film.
Marketing – Marketinghas never been more important in promoting a film’s box office. And this film played its ace – or rather, did the fundamental work to clarify its core audience. The film also went to extremes to create a number of really cool and proud posters, instead of the regular cute sweet ones. These posters cost a budget of 850,000 RMB, an unprecedented amount of money for a local animation
Film’s poster budget. To attract the ACG fans in China, it is important to bridge their fascination with real box office purchase, and big data helped to locate the fans of Chinese comics and Journey to the West – the potential viewers of this film. All its posters, theme song, music video and logline spread via social platforms and bilibili. These images really stood out and proved popular on Weibo and WeChat in less than a week.
Merchandising – In fact, the film’s production and distribution team did not expect the film to be so popular throughout this summer – they only anticipated it to win about 200 million RMB (31.56 million USD) at the box office, so there was not much planning for the merchandising. To promote the film, 60,000 little Monkey King stuffed toys were given out for free. But then one day, they started to sell these toys on Taobao, about 12 million RMB worth of toys were sold in a few hours. One can imagine how much could be earned if the production company had authorized more rights to develop such toys. Still, there are no regrets. The film is set to be a franchise, and the company plans to build more lines of merchandising during the development of its second edition. For the next round, there is a lot more time to think things through.
The future – It is not exaggerating to say that Monkey King: Hero is Back has ushered the Chinese animation film to another stage. In a market growing this fast, the sky is the limit. It is true that foreign animation films have their exotic stories and wonders, but the Chinese animation films are catching up – at least Monkey King: Hero is Back has set an example that things can be done, with an efficient team, a decent budget and the right resources, in a different way. It is, after all, a good story well told with animation.
AcFun’s Next Chapter
Established in 2007, AcFun is a video-sharing site featuring contents of anime, comic and games. It is like China’s answer to NicoNico, where user comments flow on the video, creating an immediate sense of shared viewing.
After several months of turmoil, AcFun welcomed its new Chief Editor Liu Yanyan this spring and has since taken on a new look in both its form and content.
An ACG enthusiast for over two decades, Liu created the nation’s most influential comic and animation magazines Animation & Comic Fans and Twenty Four Frame, which once wereevery student’s must-have in China’s top film school: Beijing Film Academy where Liu has been a guest professor.
Liu has the ambition to explore AcFun’s new business possibilities and to build a more sustainable ecology. His strategy is to generate original content.
As one of China’s largest online ACG communities with high user viscosity, AcFun accepted 50 million USD from Heyi Group (previously known as Youku Tudou Inc., NYSE: YOKU) in August 2015.
In a recent WeChat group interview Liu had with Huxiu, he pointed out a few directions of AcFun’s business expansion.
“First of all, IP protection will be gradually secured in China. AcFun chose to become a part of the Heyi Group largely because of the copyright issue. In 2016, AcFun will cooperate with Youku Tudou in launching a series of online and offine activities.
“Meanwhile, AcFun is developing ten projects of animation, film, web series, and TV series. In the near future, AcFun will build its own film company and animation company. We will take advantage of resources from Heyi Group and Alpha Animation, to work with production companies from Japan and South Korea, and local audio-visual ventures. In order to build our own content business, we will become IP holders, instead of big platforms, because we still believe content is king. I like genre films. The content AcFun is going to make should be genre-based, with positive values: pan-ACG commercial genre films or really fun experimental contents. At the same time, we are likely to run our own variety shows.
“AcFun will definitely establish its own literary agency. China’s show biz is having a tremendous change. Last time we saw such a change – that was 30 years ago, when the fifth generation directors emerged. The old order will be shattered soon and a new order will prevail. What we are most interested are still talent and content. I personally think now is an age that fame is a baggage to those who are already famous.
“In my view, the more celebrated a person is, the less appealing his work shall be. Because the longer he stays in the business, the less creative he might be. What the current Chinese show biz needs the LEAST is experience. All we value are ideas and content.
“We have an age limit on people we are going to invest in. e more famous he is, the less we are willing to promote him. For those who are too senior, unless they give us investment, we would not want to work with them. We don’t even want to work with the middle-aged minds. Once you are famous, you are already out. At the moment, experience is a burden. This said, those youthful talents with zero experience still have a chance to win.”
Little Door Gods Chasing Light
What if the gods above become jobless due to a general economic crisis?
Light Chaser Animation uses wild imagination to build such an adventure for these jobless gods in its first animation fifi.
1940 shots, 29 months, 160 artists and designers are now presenting a 103-minute film for the press and critics. The film is also running limited screenings in a number of second tier cities in China. Before its official release on the first day of 2016, it will launch roadshows in 36 cities in China.
If Monkey King: Hero is Back has shown that Chinese animation films can be highly pro table, then Little Door Gods might further prove that stories of local animation films can also be original and relevant.
Light Chaser’s founder and CEO Gary Wang created China’s first video site Tudou.com in 2005 and then left it after its merger with Youku.com in 2012. In March 2013, Wang announced his new project: Light Chaser Animation.
Little Door Gods is about choice and change: Faced with new conditions, how should the door gods continue their lives – to adapt themselves or stay still?
From an entrepreneur to a film screenwriter and director, Gary Wang has a simple belief: It is OK if the box office of this first film is just OK, as long as it is a quality film. The company shall survive and he will keep making his second or third film. Conversely, if the first film sucks, then there is no need to make another film any more. Wang sounds a practical idealist.
The quality of the animation is what Light Chaser pursues.
It is the artists who decide the quality of film, so Light Chaser went to great lengths in recruiting. At first, they received thousands of resumes and interviewed over one thousand candidates. Only thirty got the offer. Being selective was Light Chaser’s first step to make a quality film. Because the first group of artists would decide where the film was going. Many came back from overseas and were in charge of the film’s fate.
Light Chaser did not build the script up in the air. Instead, the story is rather grounded, and driven by the market itself. In this sense, it also looks like an Internet company – the product is researched and developed based on users’ needs and preferences. The budget has never been a problem.
Han Lei, Little Door Gods’ VFX supervisor, joined Light Chaser after working for DreamWorks for seven years. The short film Little Yeyos Light Chaser released last year won the applause from the netizens.
When the trailer went online, the audiences were already impatient to see the whole film. Some even said that the film’s got potential to be China’s selection for the 2017 Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film.
There are still 10 weeks to go before the film’s national release.
Light Chaser has got giant partners in the show biz: Alibaba Pictures, China Film Group, Tencent, Baidu and Gewara, etc. Gary Wang expressed that this partnership with BAT was another example of Light Chaser’s default feature of mingling art with technology.
In fact, when you look closely, there is no other Chinese animation company has this advantage of combining the Internet DNA with artisanship. It is a unique company by birth, and we are curious to see how its co-production company Alibaba Pictures can optimize its resources to help the film’s distribution. If positive word-of-mouth spreads, then Taobao, the e-shopping division of the Alibaba Group shall play an important role in selling the merchandising and even film tickets.
With its patient work and artistic taste, Little Door Gods has already shown the local production companies a different way to make an animation film.
Behind the Soulful Voices
Ten years ago, a group of passionate amateur voice actors gathered online to do voice acting. It was a time when people value good voice of the professionals, but this group was able to express the soul of characters – they know how to perform with their variable voices. In 2012, they started Triopen Studio. In 2014, it became a company. Their voice acting is now rated the most distinctive one in China’s ACG industry. Here is the studio founder Huang Zhenji’s take on China’s voice acting.
China’s animation industry has grown very fast these years both online and offline. In fact, its growing speed is even higher than our expectations: Each year, the number of animation series is going up; also, the number of quality content is increasing every year.
We started Triopen Studio because voice acting was the thing we had always been passionate about. We just want to spend time doing things we like.
Our team is special in the way that each one of us is an ACG fanatic. What we feel really proud of is we could do what we are fond of doing with a circle of like-minded friends. Through voice acting, we hope to create our own universe. Our works include One Hundred Thousand Bad Jokes, Zombie Brother, Gu Jian Qi Tan II, Xuan Yuan Sword and Dragon Nest.
This is a delicate age, hopeful but difficult.
It is of hope because China’s animation is developing so fast with a steady flow of quality works and this gives much more opportunities for those who are enthusiastic about animation or voice acting in specific. At the same time, the voice diversity is a problem: the older generation voice actors are not so able to adapt themselves into the new ways of animation expression, while the younger energetic generation, despite their zest, still cannot take too much workload due to their lack of professional experience. So this is a period that requires us to work hard through.
We focus on animation and game voice acting because we like them and we are familiar with them. We are ACG fans, so we know how to deliver better voice with various acting. The current situation is that game develops so much faster than animation, but in a few years, animation will catch up. If all netizens can accept watching animation on the Inter- net as a form of entertainment, then the whole market will become friendlier.
Voice acting has becoming very important in the ACG content business because for the core players or viewers, they are very particular about the voices. Some would follow an animation series because they like one of the voice actors’ voice, so it is essential to have your own style and build your own reputation.
We feel really happy for the success of One Hundred Thousand Bad Jokes, because it has been a companion of ours for several years already. We walk along with and it is like a family. Seeing its box office triumph is a delight, as I am one of its creators. I am very proud of it.
My favorite voice acting is actually that from my very early stage, because at the time I did not know a thing. Still, I was so innocently in love with voice acting and just so passionate about it. It was the beginner’s mind.
If China’s voice acting can be as systematic and commercialized as that in Japan, it would help to build a sustainable industry.
Motion Comic ROYAL
Zhou Tongtong, CEO of ROYAL ACG shares with The Chinese Film Market her take on the industry. She started ROYAL in April, 2015 and got investment from Matrix Partners China within 3 weeks. ROYAL has grown into the nation’s best-known motion comic company.
Motion Comic is an effective and intriguing way to show the power of motion and content of comics. It costs little and is quick to generate fair quality, so it easily attracts outstanding preproduction producers and content producers. Then, the high quality contents win the appreciation from video platforms and markets. It is an age of quick read. That’s why we grow fast.
Most of my team members were online voice actors, sound effect designers and post-production producers born after 1985. We had so many ideas and so much passion to make contents together, but the environment of fan-made (Doujin) videos was restricted by the Internet copyright, and the production quality of online animation was below our expectation. So, we planned to produce wonderful original contents by ourselves as a group. We worked together online and our first work went popular, which gave us confidence to shape the group into a professional company to continue this model.
China’s ACG market is growing at a high speed. The generation shift is happening: what was subculture before is now slowly becoming the mainstream culture. According to a recent research, the ACG consumers in China will soon reach 300 million. They will be the mainstream voice on the Internet. These are the young with very high purchasing power. Kids in China now all watch content on iPad or smart phones – they don’t even watch it on PC any more. For them, ACG has infiltrated into their daily life – comics or animation even appear on their learning materials for schoolwork and exams. However, the industry model is not ready to welcome the high demand in either quality or quantity.
China’s animation industry has started learning from the Japanese and American industry for a while, but we ignored the uniqueness of Chinese animation. In order to monetize contents, the industry needs integration and normalization to set up the range pole instead of finishing projects blindly without cooperation.
I also realize that the biggest competition China’s ACG content faces is the numerous selections of variety shows, especially reality shows featuring a galaxy of celebrities, like RUNNING MAN. It is quite obvious that these shows go with good scripts and entertaining acts, and stars always make a nice gossip.
We believe that “Prodigious Preproduction Planning Prevents Piss-Poor Postproduction”, so we choose motion comic to call the whole industry to notice the power of preproduction. ROYAL hopes to be, in a way, a consulting company to offer production companies notes on whether or not to realize an animation film, and how. We believe that with diversity, motion comic can show outstanding power of visual expression and bring progress in China’s ACG market.
Currently, this is still a budding market and anything is possible. I cherish the timing but I also hope the industry can grow organically. Thanks to the Internet, we now do things more efficiently and the word-of-mouth spread so much faster.
Talking about influences, Satoshi Kon inspired me the most with his unique expression between fantasy and reality. In fact, all my team members are veteran ACG-fans, and have the experience and skills of making animation in different ways including comic, music, sound effects, editing, and voice acting. This diversity makes us bring the advantage of different skill sets into the ACG industry.
The industry now believes in that content is king. Good contents are beneficial to everybody – consumers, artists, video platforms, advertisers and us. ROYAL is dedicated to optimizing production progress, enlarge the craftsmanship awareness, and improve the application of motion comic. We want to be a model in the industry with fantastic work, such as Disney.
The Making of B.E.E.
On Production of B.E.E.
“Content-wise, it is not that hard to adapt the Chinese manga as it boasts strong integrity. Set in 2017, it revolves around Liu Li, a bio-engineered heroine, who receives a new mission to rescue a hostage being held in a civilian facility. But sometimes we need to increase the pace to make it more like a video. When reading a comic story, everyone could have his own pace. Making a video, we have to ensure it is not too slow.
“Meanwhile, Sun is also working with us, improving the details that he thought could have been done better. As the comic involves some violence, it is mostly targeted at those over 16.
“The tricky part is that we haven’t built an efficient system to streamline the process. I believe the issue is the same all over China. Unlike Japan, which has realized a highly effective flow process operation, we are still trying to figure out our own way.
“Actually I have seen some really impressive 5-minute or 15-minute animation videos made by a single person. But it’s impossible for a person to produce a 500-minute video all by himself. We need a team, a system and a standard. And that’s why our company has set up branches in Japan and Korea, trying to learn from them.
“Currently, B.E.E is released monthly, fi rst in China, then in Japan. One epi sode on average needs about 50 people to work on it for 25 days. And each episode lasts for about 15 minutes. It is a little bit shorter compared to Japanese series, but that’s the best we can do at the moment.
On the Chinese Animation Market
“It seems that the Chinese animation is getting more attention and more investment, but it is still at an early stage. There’s no doubt that it is already developing at a rapid clip, but the animation in China won’t make a huge progress in a few months or a year. That’s going against natural laws.
“Though the IP craze has brought a lot of money to the industry, it still needs time to develop step by step. Just imagine the Chinese fi industry, filmmakers were at it for a number of years before it really took off.
“If you take a look at U17.com or Tencent comics, you would see that there are actually quite a lot of good contents out on the market. We are not short for contents; instead, we are thirsty for a system and talents.
“Due to historical and policy-related reasons, the market doesn’t have many available talents, especially those who could draw. Most of the people in this industry are either too young or too old. And those who could do the job sometimes ask for an unreasonable price because they think they are good. As far as I know, this thing won’t happen in countries like Japan and Korea. That’s why I always say a system matters,” said director Li Haoling.
The ACG Flagship U17
Founded in 2009, U17 Original Animation was designed to be a comic website that comic writers could publish their works online and get promoted by the site. According to a mid-year report, it now boasts 17,076 comic artists; 6,478 series of authorized works; 730 registered users, with a daily UV of 530,000.
This August, Guangdong Alpha Animation and Culture Co., Ltd. purchased 100% of Beijing Starry April Co. Ltd., parent company of U17, China’s largest online comic community, at a price of 142.47 million USD.
Dong Zhiling, co-founder and COO of U17, shares with The Chinese Film Market his observation about China’s ACG market and U17’s secret ingredient.
Currently, U17 is an online comic publisher with a steady flow of comics; at the same time, it is an IP company that develops the most marketable creations into various cultural products. In the next three years, U17 will keep developing literary properties into livelier ACG contents as well as discovering new comic artists.
Two years ago, we started to do research China’s animation business before our next move. With a close examination, we found that there were three types of local animation: the very long ones, the very expensive ones, and the traceless ones.
Examples of the very long ones are: the 700-episode of Seven Star Legend, the 832-episode of Litter Lu Ban, the alleged 3000-episode of The Naughty Blue Cat. They have one thing in common: a really long series.
Examples of the very expensive ones include: The Heroic Tale of Qi Jiguang, which cost 12 million RMB; Journey to the West, which cost 50 million RMB. To invest at least millions is their style. They seem to believe that once you are willing to spend, you can achieve something.
The third catalog, the traceless ones include Brother Octopus, e Jolly Bear, and e People’s 1911, which respectively earned 36, 000 USD; 11,000 USD and 0.15 USD at the box office – what industry professionals would call “day-trip” theatrical release.
Animation is not an easy business – it is time-consuming, expensive and risky, with no quick return, so the government helped the companies with subsidiary. For example, for each minute of animation content, the government would compensate the company 3000 RMB. However, the local companies interpreted the policy this way: as long as the cost of each minute could be kept below 3000, the rest of the charge would be net profit. This led to a severe reduction in the production budget and quality was no more what these companies were for, but profit only. This also meant that the longer the series, the more pro table it should be.
In such a circumstances, we want to make quality animation contents with sincerity. We think of a different model: each series would be of 10 to 14 episodes; each episode can be a bit shorter, in order to better control the budget; we update each episode every two or four weeks – basically we finish making each episode just a bit before airing it; ultimately, we increase production budget to ensure the overall quality.
In this way, we present the series of One Hundred Thousand Bad Jokes, which includes 12 episodes in the first season, each 20 minutes. We update on the first day of each month at a budget of 10,000 RMB, a quite decent budget in the current standard. Such a work is widely praised and we are most proud that we also manage to make a profit.
This ushers U17 into more attention and gives rise to a lot more web comics adapted into animation. This U17 business model has spread out and we are con dent that budget is not a problem.
All in all, the most valuable asset of U17 is its literary property. Meanwhile, we keep exploring new contents and diversified business models. With the rapid growth of China’s IP market, we believe our properties will be more and more important.
China’s animation business is now climbing. There is a rare historic opportunity in comics, animation, film and relevant industries. The high-speed development in the animation biz is also a miniature of the grander local entertainment business. We need to especially notice the latest trend – the integration of new media, film and IP. The business will be so much more colorful when new media and the Internet play their role.
Our core team is visiting the United States now and feels so much about the products generated with the backdrop of American culture. At the New York Comic Con, the scale of the exhibition and variety of its content amazes us. It sets a good example for us to examine and learn from. At the same time, we are glad to see that some Asian images from China and from Japan have been recognized the New Yorkers. It is remarkable.
Still, I think each region should have its own cultural product to lead the market. In the States, comic companies like Marvel look invincible. I think in China, we should and we can build our own ACG culture.
In the near future, we will make 8 animation films with our partners. Though we are quite conservative in terms of making announcement. You know, what this industry needs is not skillful public speakers, but people who can get things done, without much big talk. We prefer to keep a low profile and create quality content. Even if we only make several works each year, it is OK – as long as the users think they are original and fun. We want to help improve this industry bit by bit.
I think the China’s ACG business can learn a lot from Japan – no matter in macro aspects like the creative environment, policy and regulations, or the details in execution, like the respect towards and protection of intellectual property, and the awareness to further develop IP. This learning process will also be integration of the new media, new technology, new forms, new market, new context and new audiences with our industrial models. What’s more, we hope to learn from Japan’s industrial production model in the future. Since Japan’s ACG has been doing this for a very long time, its production procedure and streamline are much more steady than ours.